Category Archives: _Research Reports

Kristina Diaz_Research Reports

1. Printing Color

  • Offset printing uses CMYK and first its halftone then full tone
  • Another method is screen printing, similar to a stencil
  • Inkjet printer its a cheaper printer.

2. Color Management

  • Color needs to be consistent like companies use the same colors to identify their company
  • Pantone is the color system
  • Mostly seen in TV screens

3. Applied Color

  • People see the color first, words/shapes are seen second
  • Color is used in braiding and logos
  • Corporate websites use the same brand colors throughout the web
  • Contrast for readability is important

4. Color Biology

  • Rods are used to see light
  • There are 3 different kinds of color blindness: monochromatic, dichromatic, and trichromatic
  • The human eye can see over 10 million colors
  • Dogs are not color blind but they can only see in blue and violet

5.  Color Psychology

  • Each color can have a positive or negative meaning to people
  • Light red can mean sober, sentimental and quiet
  • Yellow usually means being optimistic, enlightening, and show happiness
  • The physical effect of blue is it has a cooling effect and calms the mind

6. Color Screen/Monitors

  • Larger the number of colors the better resolution
  • Computers have their own language when showing color
  • There are different ways to save pictures like .gif, .jpeg, .png
  • The number of pixels displayed on computer screen affect the way they are seen

7.  Modern Color Theory

  • Hue is measured around the horizontal circles
  • Chroma is measured outward from the vertical axis
  • Value is measured vertically
  • Munsell created a color system model to demonstrate hue, chroma, and value


research presentation notes

Color biology

  • cones are in the back of the eyes
  • in dim light we use our rods because we can’t interpret color wave lengths as well as in light which is why we mainly blue in the dark.
  • dogs have dichromatic vision, can see red and blue


Color Psychology

  • green represents calmness and nature
  • red is an attention grabber, used to make things pop
  • purple can represent romance
  • orange gives a warm feel

Applied Colors

  • when people shop they are attracted by the color of a product
  • colors are used to express a business goals and ideas


Vanessa Rodriguez Esparza | Research Project Notes


cones capture the red, blue and green rays. rods help us see in dim lighting. contrary to what many people believe, most animals are not color blind


many researchers have continued to tweak the color wheel. these experiments have expanded our knowledge on color mixing and have given us a broader color spectrum


albert munsell described a cylindrical color wheel model that depicts hue, value and chroma (saturation)


all colors have positive and negative meanings depending on the  hue, value and saturation


pantone color is achieved though a chemical solution


offset printing can be an extremely useful tool when you need a high quantity of prints


color is perceived much faster than text therefore, color is the most important aspect of a logo

ChristianHerrera_Research Notes

Color Biology

Long wave length cones see Red.

Medium wave length cones see Green.

Short wave length cones see Blue.

Rods see light.

8% of men are color blind

0.5% of women are color blind.


Color Theory History

Sir Isaac Newton started color theory with his prism experiment.

Mayer created the Color Triangle composed of the three pure hues, Red, Blue, and Yellow.

Gothe studies the psychology of colors.

-yellow, blue, red green, white, and black all impact peoples emotions.


Color Psychology

Red- Danger, brutal, hate, aggression; Red captures attention.

Yellow- Cheerful, happy, sweet, kind, compassionate

Blue- Peace, cool, refreshing, calms the mind; cooling effect.

Orange- Gentle, friendly, delicious, fruity. Stimulates appetite. Used in safety measures for its bright color.

Purple- Delicate, mystical, charming, subtle. Purple calms people, gives a sense of spirituality.


Applied Color

Branding- Name, term, symbol.

60% of people make purchased based on color.

In web designing, you normally see the companies signature colors.

Contrast in text should be handles carefully, when does colored text become difficult to read.


Printing Color

Full tone- ink density of printing image.

Halftone- continuous use of small dots to show an image all together.

Screen printing- Used to make T-shirts

Laser printing- rapidly produces high quality text and graphics using a laser beam and a photoreceptor that defines the image.


Color Management

Color consistency is important as to how color is communicated.

Color space is a mathematical model how color is perceived.

-Ranges from a camera colors to the display of a computer monitor.


Color in monitors

Red, Green, and Blue are the primary colors.

Hexadecimal- system to add or subtract value of a color.

RGBA – the A is added for the Alpha Channel.

Presentation Notes

Color Biology

Our peripheral vision is less clear because the cones in our eyes are concentrated in the retina. Color deficiency is more prominent in men.

Color Theory History

Jacob Christian Schaffer’s 1769 color system arranged colors in groups. Michel Chevreul discovered an illusion where two colors next to each other will appear brighter at the edges.

Color Psychology

Red has physical effects of increased energy, enthusiasm, energy, and enthusiasm. Yellow is enlightening, optimistic, and happy.

Modern Color Theory

Albert Munsell’s color tree measures hue, chroma, and value. An after image occurs once repeated exposure to a color has ceased. Pure red, blue, and green are unattainable with the subtractive CMYK process.

Printing Color

Inkjet printers create color variations using dots of color 50 to 60 microns in size. Laser printers are more efficient and higher quality than cheaper, inkjet printers.

Color Management

Consistency is key in branding. Pantone offers colors that can’t be mixed using CMYK colors.

Computer Color

Alpha channel represents transparency. Amoled screens look brighter than LED because they can reproduce a wider gamut of colors.

Jason Sage


The human eye can see 10 million different colors.

Not all colors are seen on a monitor.  Its the mixing of colors that causes us to see them.


Isaac Newton developed the color wheel.

Johann Wolfgang von Goethe was a poet, artist and politician.

He taught us the psychology of colors.

Otto Runge wanted to show the world that all colors could be made from red yellow and blue.

showed the differences by adding white and black.



Munsell using numbers to give value to colors 10 for white/ 0 for black.

Munsell color system that was based on hue, value and croma.

Josef Albers interaction of colors.

Itten teaching elements of color using color contrast.


Different colors represent different things of fillings to different people.

Some of these are,

Yellow is caution as in a held sign

Red is urgency  designed to get a point across fast.

Blue is the most recognized and used color.  Its also symbolizes stability and loyalty.

Green is very restful on the eyes.  It symbolizes harmony and growth.

Orange is a very hot color, its very stimulating and symbolizes strength and endurance.

Purple symbolizes power.  Most pre adolescent children prefer purple to all other colors.


A system to ensure that color remains the same regardless of the device of the medium being used.

Pantone color system, CMYK color matching system.


Offset printers are used in printing newspapers, magazines.  It is a less costly form of printing.

screen print uses a stencil and a woven mesh the control the ink.

Commonly used for printing on T-shirts.

Inkjet printers one line at a time by releasing the ink in the areas it belongs.

Most common printer for the home.

Laser printers uses a laser to produce the color on paper.


Color is the most important design element in advertising.

Ex restaurants such as McDonalds and KFC and many more use Red because its known for stimulating your appetite.


Presentation Notes

  1. Color Biology
  •  Cones are located all around the back of the eye.
  • We can see over 10 million different colors.
  • There are three types of color deficiencies: Anomalous Trichromatic-color weakness , Monochromatic, Dichromatic – lack of r-g or b-y
  • The color yellow can not be displayed on a screen, when we see yellow it is really a combination of colors that are next to each.

2. Color Psychology

  • Red- captures people’s attentions thats why stop signs are red.
  • Yellow- Bright, happy, and it represents caution.
  • Orange- It represents warmth and  it is a color used for construction signs.
  • Green- It represents calmness and nature, and can also represent richness or money wise.
  • Purple- It represents something that can be romantic, breakable, loud, or darkness.

3. Moderen Color Theory

  • Munsell’s system has lasted because of the human relationship he explains.
  • Value is measured with White=10, and Black=0
  • Itten-color contrasts.
  • Hue: The interaction of 2 or more different colors.
  • Complementary colors= warm and cool

4. Color Management

  • Color consistency – Colors should be consistent in a symbol so that it may be recognizable to the viewer or public.
  • Pantone Color System uses color CYMK color schemes.
  • Color spaces that are larger  hold brighter, saturated and extra colors

5.  Applied Colors

  • Branding is using a logo, identification,  or a  design to identify companies
  • Logo and colors are seen as a more important in  element in a design than words.
  • People are attractive to color more than anything else when it comes to a design or logo.

6. Printing Color

  • Offset Printing- printer that is used for newspapers, magazines and books and prints them at a very high speed
  • Screen Printing- uses a stencil to apply ink, is usually used for making designs on clothing, posters.
  • Inkjet Printing-printing in which small dots are made that align together to make the image.
  • Laser Printing- Digital printing that uses a laser beam to rapidly produce good quality graphics.

7.  Color Computers and Monitors/Screens

  • The number of pixels that are displayed on a screen affects the way color looks.
  • Hexadecimal –It is a system that is used to add or subtract value to a color
  • LCD is short for liquid crystal display.
  • HSV i short of for H-hue, S- saturate, V-value.


Presentation Notes

Applied Color

– Branding – Logo, identification, symbol or design to identify companies

  • color symbolism – colors that help attract the consumer  for specific purposes (ex. Fed Ex Green = Easy and safe, Fed Ex orange = Fast and swift delivery)

-Color in Webdesign

  • Uses color to enhance what they’re trying to say/guide you to (identification). (ex. blue lines because it’s a noticeable color.
  • Text is legible with the color it is put together with in the background

-Color in Film

  • Warm colors – excitement, adventure, warmth and love
  • Cool colors – danger, mystery, isolation
  • storytelling device
  • color symbolism

Printing Color

-Offset Printing – most common way for newspapers, magazines, and boobs to be printed. It uses cyan, magenta, and yellow. Prints numerous amounts and less expensive

-Screen Printing – Using stencils and apply ink

Laser Printing – rapidly produces high quality text and graphics using a laser beam over a photo receptive drum.

Ink Jet Printer – uses liquid ink in microscopic nozzles unto paper (50-60 microns)

Color Biology

-Color reflects the different colors they’re viewed as (ex. color red reflect red light and absorbs the rest)

– Red, green, and blue cones in an eye

-you see blue and gray during the night because of no light


  • Monochromatic – lack all cones
  • Dichromatic – Lack R-G cones or B-L cones
  • Anomalous Trichromatic – Color weakness

Eyes can see 10 million colors

Color History 

-Isaac Newton –  first to make the color wheel

-Claude Baute – color model with primaries

– Tobias Mayer (1758) – triangle shape with 3 primaries (red, blue, yellow)

– Jacob Christian Schaffer (1769) – color shades with combinations

-Johann Wolfgang Van Goethe (1810) – Psychological impacts of color

– Runge and Chevreul (1807)

– Albert Henry Munsell (1915) – Colors scientific matter

Modern Color History

-Albert Munsell (1973) – Munsell’s color theory – Using numbers to identify certain colors

-Johannes Itten – Thought that certain colors had spiritual and mental effects on people (ex. Green = tranquility)

-Josef Albers – Colors that have interaction with each other

Color Management

-Procedure of controlling color characteristics between various devices (ex. TVs, Computer screens)

-Color consistency – Colors should be consistent in a logo or symbol so that it may be recognizable in the eyes of the public.

-Pantone Color System

  • Uses CMYK color scheme
  • Uses a system of numbers and suffixes for identification

Suffixes examples

CV – Computer Video

C – Coated

U – Uncoated

M – Matted

– Color ranges from different devices

Presentation Notes

Color Biology

  • Seeing color: the basics
    • Black cloth feels warmer bc black absorbs and white reflects
    • When mix all colored lights = white
      • When paint mixed together it creates black
      • 3 types of cones in our eyes
        • long red, medium, green, short blue
        • don’t use cones in dim lights; use rods
        • 3 types of color blindness
          • monochromatic – lack all cones
            • rare
            • dichromatic – lack r-g or b-y
            • anomalous – trichromatic – color weakness
            • a lot of animals are not color blind
              • dogs can see red blue and violets
              • rats are color blind
              • birds fish and many mammals perceive the entire spectrum
              • bees can see ultraviolet colors
              • eyes can see over 10 million colors
              • mirrors reflect green light
                • specular reflection
                • diffuse reflection
                • why green light?
                  • Mirrors light in the 510 nanometer range which is the range in which we see green
                  • Yellow cannot be shown on a screen,  so it is a combination of colors next to each other that make you perceive yellow


Color Theory History

  • 1660 Isaac newton
    • modern theory of light and color
    • Prism experiment helped newton build a concept of what is known as the color wheel
    • 1758  tobias Mayer
      • did a color triangle diagram and began with 3 main pure colors: red blue and yellow
      • 1769 jacob Christian schaffer
        • when you combine blue red and yellow, they create multiple shades in between. His color system shows color combinations within a color group
        • 1800s  Johann Wolfgang Van Goethe
          • focused more peoples emotions and feelings
            • disagreed with newton’s scientific base
            • 1807 Otto Runge
              • made a color wheel model taking the primary colors and adding black and white to demonstrate other colors
              • created a 3d model color sphere
              • 1839 Michel Eugene Chevreul
                • took Runge’s idea and arranged 72 colors into a hemisphere
                • 1915 Albert Munsell
                  • cylindrical system model showing hue (around the model), value (vertical), and chroma (horizontal)
                  • described color in a scientific manner
                  • helped launch other color wheels
                  • 1979 Ewald Hering
                    • Natural Color System
                      • Six psychological primary colors: yellow blue red green white black



Color Psychology

  • Primary Colors
    • Red
      • Symbolic Meaning: Red captures attention rom people because it is the most visible color (ex: stop sign, fire truck).
  • Yellow
    • Symbolic Meaning: Yellow is generally accepted as being optimistic, enlightening, as well as happiness. It can also represent a good future when goldish. Universally, it represents caution since it is a very visible color (ex: yellow stop light)
  • Blue
    • Symbolic Meaning: It’s ranked high and overused. People tend to mix blue with other colors to be creative. Blue I also the most recognizable as well as most used color in design for corporations.
    • Secondary Colors
      • Orange
        • Symbolic Meaning: Brighter, warmer oranges represent energy and warmth. Orange is also used to set things apart from their surroundings for safety reasons. Orange can also represent gluttony in the Christian faith.
  • Green
    • Symbolic Meaning: Green is used to represent safety worldwide. It is also commonly associated with nature. However, it also is associated with something that is incredibly smelly or intense jealous (green with envy). Green is also associated with money.
  • Purple
    • Symbolic Meaning: Purple symbolizes nobility and luxury to most people. It also represents pride in Christianity.


Applied Color

  • Branding: the name, term, sign, symbol or design or a combination of them intended to identity a company’s products
    • Logo/color more important than words
    • People absorb color before anything else
      • 60% of people will decide if they are attracted or not based on color alone
      • Color = 80% increase in brand recognition
      • Color Trends:
        • Red 29%
        • Yellow/Gold 13%
        • Black/Grey 28%
        • Blue 33%
        • Brands use their colors throughout their websites (ex: accent colors, borders, images)
          • Other colors used on the website enhance the brands color
          • Muted color pallet
          • Need to consider contrast for readability
          • Book cover designers need to balance themes and entice readers


Printing Color

  • Offset Printing
    • Prints newspapers, magazines and books at high speed
    • Several step process
    • To print full color photos, the photo is separated into CMYK
    • Each color layer is printed separately and on top of each other
    • Screen Printing
      • Uses a stencil to apply ink
      • Used for t-shirts, posters, stickers, vinyl, wood, etc.
      • Laser Printers
        • Digital printing process that rapidly produces high quality text and graphics using a laser beam
        • Inkjet Printers
          • Use liquid ink sprayed through microscopic nozzles onto the paper
          • Uses small dots that align together to create the image


Color Management

  • The procedure of controlling color characteristics between devices
  • By viewing color accurately, it allows you to make correct decisions on color scheming
  • Keeping things consistent ensures the message is properly communicated
  • Logos are consistently recognizable
  • Pantone Color System
    • Widely used; standardized
    • Can produce color that can’t be mixed with CMYK
    • Uses a system of numbers and suffix
      • Number = color; Suffix = paper being printed on
      • Suffixes:
        • CV – Computer Video
        • C – Coated
        • U – Uncoated
        • M – Matte
  • Color Space
    • Range of colors from different devices
    • Larger color spaces hold both brighter, saturated and extra colors


Color and Monitors/Screens

  • Additive Color
    • When primary additive color lights are mixed they form a white light
    • Hexadecimal – a system to add or subtract value to color
      • Ranges from 00 (no value or color) to FF (highest saturation)
      • Made up of six digits
        • First two represent the red; Second two represent the green; Last two represent blue
        • RGBA
          • A refers to the ALPHA channel
          • Adds transparency
          • LCD screen – liquid crystal display
          • Formats you can save  (.gif, .jpeg, .png) are based on RGB information
          • HSVA – creates and outputs a new color space by converting the hue, saturation, value and alpha components taken from the input
          • Number of pixels on a screen affects the way colors look

Presentation Notes

Color Biology:

–       L cone red, M cone Green, S cone blue

–       In dim light you use rods, Rods don’t distinguish different color wavelengths

–       Some animals can see a wider range of colors

–       Mirrors reflect greenish light

–       Red and green light make yellow on a screen


Color Theory History:

–       Newton was the first to beginning to understand color theory. Breaking light w/ prism -> formed color wheel.

–       Tobias Mayer, Color Triangle w/3 primary colors (RBY)

–       Jacob Schaffer, formed color combinations with RBY with groups.

–       Johann Geothe, studied the psychological side of color.

–       Runge & Chevreul used white and black to create more colors

–       Munsell- cylindrical model to show hue, value, chroma

–       Hering more design focused color model, Primary RBYGBW, incorporates psychological side of color. Most used now


Color Psychology:

–       Red> Light: Warm+, Quiet-, Bright: Sensual+, Danger-, Dark: Rich+, Serious-

–       There are positive and negative reactions to colors

–       Majority of people prefer blue.


Modern Color Theory:

–       Munsell: created a system to numerically organize colors based off people’s response to color.

–       Itten: Studied Contrasts, light dark (white vs black), warm cool (Red orange vs Blue Green), extension, saturation, hue, complementary, simultaneous

–       Albers, Color interactions.

–       Color Mixing: Additive (light RGB) and Subtractive (print CMYK, paint RYB)

–       Complementary, Analogous, Triadic, Square


Applied Color:

–       60% of people decide on products based on their attraction to the logo which includes color

–       Color symbolism play a large role in determining colors for companies/products. Relating the color’s symbolism to the company/product’s function

–       Brand extension: repeating color usage throughout the brand

–       Color Navigation: blue links, etc

–       Contrast: black on white or white on black are generally better


Printing Color:

–       Offset printer- Like a stamp. Print in large quanitities. Large upfront cost.

–       Silkscreen printing

–       Laser printer

–       Inkjet


Color Computer and Screen Monitors

–       LCD vs AMOLED screens

–       More brightness and saturation in AMOLED screen

–       Computer software, hardware, browser, can all affect the display of color

–       HSV (hue, saturation, value)